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> Lecţii de limba greacă, - scoase de la naftalină-

vesperala
post Jan 4 2008, 02:12 PM
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Miradoniz
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le-am adus pentru că oricum profesorul nostru de greacă nu mai pare dispus să ne ndrume... emo-cry.gif poate vă vor fi de folos:



lecţia 1
QUOTE
Alfabetul grecesc:
α se pronunta a
β se pronunta v
γ nu exista un sunet identic in limba romana dar puteti pronunta ca un gh tot cu laringe dar mai usor;exista totusi sunet echivalent in engleza:ca la we(=noi)
δ nici asta nu are sunet identic in limba romana;se pronunta ca si th la this si there si them in engleza.
ε se pronunta e
ζ se pronunta z,dar daca esti prea rasfatat poti pronunta si j
η se pronunta i
θ nu are echivalent sonor in limba Romana;se pronunta ca si th la three(trei),threat,thumb,throat a limbii engleze.
ι se pronunta i
κ se pronunta ca,ch
λ se pronunta l
μ se pronunta m
ν se pronunta n
ξ se pronunta x,ks
ο se pronunta o
π se pronunta p
ρ se pronunta r
σ,ς se pronunta s
τ se pronunta t
υ se pronunta i
φ se pronunta f
χ se pronunta h
ψ se pronunta ps,ca la psitacoza
ω se pronunta o


Prezentul verbului a avea
εγώ έχω (εγώ=eu,έχω=am)
εσύ έχεις (εσύ=tu,έχεις=ai) ει-se pronunta i pentru ca este diftong
αυτός,αυτή,αυτό έχει (αυτός=el,αυτή=ea,αυτό=el-neutrul , έχει=are) αυ-se pronunta af si nu ai pentru ca este diftong
εμείς έχομε (εμείς=noi,έχομε=avem)
εσείς έχετε (εσείς=voi,έχετε=aveti)
αυτοί,αυτές,αυτά έχουν (αυτοί=ei,αυτές=ele,αυτά=ei-neutru, έχουν=au) οι-se pronunta i si ου-se pronunta u pentru ca sunt diftongi


Prezentul verbului a fi
εγώ είμαι (είμαι=sint) αι-se pronunta e pentru ca este diftong
εσύ είσαι (είσαι=esti)
αυτός,αυτή,αυτό είναι (είναι=este)
εμείς είμαστε (είμαστε=sintem)
εσείς είστε (είστε=sinteti)
αυτοί,αυτές,αυτά είναι (είναι=sint)


Romania=Ρουμανία Grecia=Ελλάδα
Luni=Δευτέρα aici ευ-se pronunta ef pentru ca este diftong
Marti=Τρίτη
Miercuri=Τετάρτη
Joi=Πέμπτη
Vineri=Παρασκευή aici ευ-se pronunta ev pentru ca este diftong
Simbata=Σάββατο
Duminica=Κυριακή


0=μηδέν,1=ένα,2=δύο,3=τρία,4=τέσσερα,5=πέντε,6=έξι,7=επτά,8=οκτώ,9=εννέα,10=δέκα

saptamana=εβδομάδα, luna=μήνας, an=έτος

ieri=χθες sau χτες, astazi=σήμερα, maine=αύριο αυ-se pronunta av aici(diftong)

mama=μαμά, tata=μπαμπάς, frate=αδελφός, sora=αδελφή

bun=καλός,rau=κακός,cald=ζεστός,rece=κρύος,tanar=νέος,batran=γέρος,nou=νέο,vechi=παλαιό,παλιό,αρχαίο

alb=άσπρο,negru=μαύρο(αυ-se pronunta av),rosu=κόκκινο,galben=κίτρινο,albastru=μπλέ,verde=πράσινο

te rog=σε παρακαλώ, multumesc=ευχαριστώ (aici ευ-se pronunta ef)

Litere mari a alfabetului grec:
Α, Β, Γ, Δ, Ε, Ζ, Η, Θ, Ι, Κ, Λ, Μ, Ν, Ξ, Ο, Π, Ρ, Σ, Τ, Υ, Φ, Χ, Ψ, Ω


si mai vreau sa spun ca μπ-se pronunta b


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vesperala
post Jan 4 2008, 02:16 PM
Post #2


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Lecţia 2

QUOTE
da=ναι sau μάλιστα (μάλιστα e o forma mai politicoasa de a spune da;se foloseseste mai ales in armata dar si catre superiori nostri in general,de exemplu directori)
nu=όχι
dimineata=πρωί, pranz=μεσημέρι, seara=βράδυ
zi=μέρα, noapte=νύχτα
lumina=φως, intuneric=σκοτάδι
soare=ήλιος, luna=σελήνη,φεγγαρι(mai popular,si inca ceva...aici γγ se pronunta gh ca la ghiare,dar fara i-ul), stea=αστέρι, stele=αστέρια
fata=κορίτσι, baiat=αγόρι
femeie=γυναίκα, barbat=άνδρας sau άντρας (ντ se pronunta d)
Nu exista o forma politicoasa de adresare,folosim pluralul;eventual in taraneste sau in literatura poti intilni pentru dumneavoastra asa zisul "η αφεντιά σας" dar cred ca provine din turca si nu prea intilnesti in limba curenta.(pentru dumnealui- η αφεντιά του si asa mai departe)
Unde=που (που πας;=unde mergi?), De unde=από που (από που είσαι;=de unde esti?), in greceste ";" = "?" in Romaneste si ου cum am spus la prima lectie se pronunta u
Cine=ποιός (ποιός είσαι εσύ;=cine esti tu?), Ce=τι (τι κάνεις;=ce faci?), οι si ει cum am spus la inceput se pronunta i
Cum=πως (πως σε λενε;=cum te cheama?)
Cand=πότε (πότε έρχεσαι σπιτι;=cand vii acasa?), atentie! sa nu faci confuzie cu ποτέ (accentul la έ) care inseamna niciodata, si aici dupa cum am spus la inceput αι se pronunta e
Cui=τίνος (τίνος είναι το βιβλίο;=a cui este cartea?)
cui dai cartea?=τίνος δινεις το βιβλιο; dar la fel de corect si mai specific pentru dativ este daca spui "σε ποιόν δίνεις το βιβλίο;"
aici=εδώ, acolo=εκεί
aproape=κοντά, departe=μακριά
in fata=μπροστά, in spate=πίσω
la stanga=αριστερά, la dreapta=δεξιά
mana=χέρι, picior=πόδι, ochi=μάτι,οφθαλμος(stiintific), gura=στόμα, nas=μυτη,ρινα(stiintific)
buna ziua=καλημέρα (καλημέρα se spune si pentru buna dimineata), salut=γεια σου, buna seara=καλησπέρα, noapte buna=καληνύχτα

(eu)am fost=ήμουν / o sa fiu=θα είμαι
ai fost=ήσουν / o sa fii=θα είσαι
a fost=ήταν /(el) o sa fie=θα είναι
(noi)am fost=ήμασταν /o sa fim=θα είμαστε
ati fost=ήσασταν / o sa fiti=θα είσαστε sau θα είστε
au fost=ήταν / (ei) ο sa fie=θα είναι

(eu)am avut=είχα / o sa am=θα έχω
ai avut=είχες / o sa ai=θα έχεις
a avut=είχε / (el)o sa aiba=θα έχει
(noi)am avut=είχαμε / o sa avem=θα έχουμε sau θα έχομε
ati avut=είχατε / o sa aveti=θα έχετε
au avut=είχαν / (ei)o sa aiba=θα έχουν

Forma negativa e usoara,se pune nu(=δεν sau δε) inaintea verbului ca la romana.Ex. :
Δεν είμαι, δεν ήμουν,δε θα είμαι,δεν έχω,δεν είχα,δε θα έχω...si asa mai departe
Acum vreau sa iti spun ca exista o regula pentru cind se pune δεν si cind se pune δε.Se pune ν-ul final daca urmeaza vocala sau o consoana oclusiva(κ,π,τ,μπ,ντ,γκ,τσ,τζ) sau o litera dubla (ξ,ψ).Nu se pastreaza daca urmeaza o consoana fricativa(β,γ,δ,ζ,θ,λ,μ,ν,ρ,σ,φ,χ).

casa=το σπίτι(e neutru),masa=το τραπέζι(e neutru),scaunul=η καρέκλα(e feminin),patul=το κρεβάτι(e neutru),peretele=ο τοίχος(e masculin),podea=το πάτωμα(e neutru),tavanul=το ταβάνι(e neutru),fereastra=το παράθυρο(e neutru),usa=η πόρτα(e feminin)
cainele=ο σκύλος(masculin),pisica=η γάτα(feminin),pasarea=το πουλί(neutru)
caietul=το τετράδιο(neutru),stiloul=η πέννα(feminin),creionul=το μολύβι(neutru),pixul=το στυλό(neutru)

2+1=3 se citeste asa δύο συν(+) ένα ίσον(=) τρία
2-1=1 se citeste asa δύο μείον(-) ένα ίσον ένα
2*1=2 se citeste asa δύο επί (*) ένα ίσον δύο
2^3=8 se citeste asa δυο εις την (^) τρίτη ίσον οκτώ(sau οχτώ)
primul=ο πρώτος,prima=η πρώτη,si mai este si neutru-το πρώτο
al doilea=ο δεύτερος,a doua=η δεύτερη,si neutru-το δεύτερο
al treilea=ο τρίτος,a treia=η τρίτη,si neutru-το τρίτο
al patrulea=ο τέταρτος,a patra=η τέταρτη,si neutru-το τέταρτο
al cincelea=ο πέμπτος,a cincea=η πέμπτη,si neutru-το πέμπτο
al saselea=ο έκτος,a sasea=η έκτη,si neutru-το έκτο
al saptelea=ο έβδομος,a saptea=η έβδομη,si neutru-το έβδομο
al optulea=ο όγδοος,a opta=η όγδοη,si neutru-το όγδοο
al noualea=ο ένατος,a noua=η ένατη,si neutru-το ένατο
al zecelea=ο δέκατος,a zecea=η δέκατη,si neutru-το δέκατο

o jumatate=το μισό, un sfert=ένα τέταρτο, o treime=ένα τρίτο, o zecime=ένα δέκατο
punct=σημείο,dreapta=ευθεία(ευ aici se pronunta ef),plan=επίπεδο,segment=τμήμα
Se foloseste accentul ΄ ,semnul de intrebare in greaca este ; , si in locul semnului ;(pe romneste) noi folosim ΄ (se numeste punctul de sus)
Ar mai fi si semnele diacritice ΅ (doua puncte cu un accent la mijloc sau 2 puncte fara accentul la mijloc ΄΄) se marcheaza pe ι si υ pentru a arata ca ele se pronunta separat de α,ε,ο,υ atunci cand le succeda acestora (adica nu formeaza diftong).
Nu se marcheaza semnele diacritice cand vocala dinainte are accent.
accentul se pune numai pe litere mici.Folosesti tastatura greaca si apasi impreuna litera si butonul care este la dreapta lui L adica :;

cana=κούπα,pahar=ποτήρι,furculita=πηρούνι,lingura=κουτάλι,cutit=μαχαίρι,farfurie=πιάτο, lingurita=κουταλάκι


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vesperala
post Jan 4 2008, 02:19 PM
Post #3


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un link interesant pentru ncepători , dacă ştiţi engleză ... smile.gif ca o completare a lecţiilor de aici....


lecţia 3


QUOTE
Nu sint sigur daca este o regula in formarea vocativului,de exemplu in functie de terminatie substantivului in nominativ,totusi pot sa dau citeva exemple:
nominativ:ο φίλος(prietenul),vocativ:φίλε(masculin)
nominativ:η γατούλα(pisicuta),vocativ:γατούλα(feminin)
nominativ:η μαμά(mama),vocativ:μαμά(feminin)
nominativ:το μωρό(bebelusul),vocativ:μωρό(neutru)
nominativ:ο αλήτης(golanul),vocativ:αλήτη(masculin)
nominativ:ο μπαμπάς(tatal),vocativ:μπαμπά(masculin)
nominativ:το παιδί(copilul),vocativ:παιδί(neutru)


Infinitul in greceste se formeaza din prepozitie να (care inseamna "sa") si verbul in persoana a treia,singular a timpului prezent.Exemple:
κάνω(fac),infinit:να κάνει
παίζω(joc),infinit:να παίζει
διαβάζω(citesc),infinit:να διαβάζει
πίνω(beau),infinit:να πίνει


Formarea imperativului depinde de verb si nu stiu sa existe o regula standard.Exemple(la singular,plural):
κάνω,imperativ:κάνε,κάνετε
παίζω,imperativ:παίξε,παίξετε(sau παίξτε)
διαβάζω,imperativ:διάβασε,διαβάσετε(sau διαβάστε)
πίνω,imperativ:πιές,πιείτε


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vesperala
post Jan 4 2008, 02:23 PM
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lecţia 4

QUOTE
apa=νερό,foc=φωτιά,lumina=φως,intuneric=σκοτάδι
pentru mine=για μένα,pentru tine=για σένα,
pentru el=για αυτόν(masculin)-για αυτό(neutru),
pentru ea=για αυτή,pentru noi=για μας,
pentru voi=για σας,pentru ei=για αυτούς(masculin)-για αυτά(neutru),pentru ele=για αυτές
mie=εμένα,tie=εσένα,lui=αυτού(masculin si neutru la fel),ei=αυτής,noua=εμάς,voua=εσάς,lor=αυτών(masculin,feminin si neutru la fel)
al meu=δικό μου,al tau=δικό σου,al sau=δικό του,
al nostru=δικό μας,al vostru=δικό σας,al lor=δικό τους,
a mea=δική μου,a ta=δική σου,a sa=δική του,
ale mele=δικούς μου(masculin),δικές μου(feminin),δικά μου(neutru)
ale tale=δικούς σου,δικές σου,δικά σου
ale lor=δικά τους(masculin,feminin si neutru la fel)
casa mea=το σπίτι μου(neutru)
fratele meu=ο αδελφός μου(masculin)
excursie=εκδρομή, vacanta=διακοπές
primavara=άνοιξη,vara=καλοκαίρι,
toamna=φθινόπωρο,iarna=χειμώνας


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vesperala
post Jan 4 2008, 02:25 PM
Post #5


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emo-closed.gif att a fost...

eventuale completări, aici:

http://vesperala.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=74


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kg70
post Jan 4 2008, 02:26 PM
Post #6


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Cum sa nu?sunt la dispozitia voastra!


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vesperala
post Jan 4 2008, 02:28 PM
Post #7


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QUOTE (kg70 @ Jan 4 2008, 02:26 PM)
Cum sa nu?sunt la dispozitia voastra!

http://vesperala.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=74

păi eu aştept de cteva zile aici să ne spui cteva vorbe...sad.gif

e aşa greu cntecelul?


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kg70
post Jan 4 2008, 03:13 PM
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QUOTE (vesperala @ Jan 4 2008, 12:28 PM)
http://vesperala.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=74

păi eu aştept de cteva zile aici să ne spui cteva vorbe...sad.gif

e aşa greu cntecelul?

Acum trebuie sa plec undeva si ma intorc pe la sapte.O sa incerc sa va traduc citeva vorbe din cintecul dar sa stiti ca nu este asa de usor sa incepi sa inveti o limba straina din cintecele. Eu care vorbesc romaneste ani de zile inca nu pot sa inteleg cintecele romanesti 100%,mai ales cele populare.


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vesperala
post Jan 4 2008, 03:20 PM
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QUOTE (kg70 @ Jan 4 2008, 03:13 PM)
Acum trebuie sa plec undeva si ma intorc pe la sapte.O sa incerc sa va traduc citeva vorbe din cintecul dar sa stiti ca nu este asa de usor sa incepi sa inveti o limba straina din cintecele. Eu care vorbesc romaneste ani de zile inca nu pot sa inteleg cintecele romanesti 100%,mai ales cele populare.

am propus un cntecel pentru că ntrerupsesei lecţiile...ce puteam face? sad.gif
plus, e un cntec frumos...



cntecele populare au multe regionalisme şi expresii vechi, de aceea nu le nţelegi... e perfect normal.. ţi voi povesti cndva un exemplu, pe un topic special, ca să pricepi că nici romnii nu le nţeleg ntotdeauna dacă nu sunt cntece din zona lor.



oricum, sper să postezi acolo, nu aici, dacă tot am declarat nchis acest topic.
ştiu că fiind moderator tu poţi posta n topicele nchise, dar colegii tăi de forum nu pot.
http://vesperala.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=74


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